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RESEARCH ARTICLE 

Architectural Arrangement of Neurons as Part of the Functional Unit of the Central Nervous System

Allen J Orehek, Jose Rafael Iglesias-Rozas and Manuel Garrosa

Abstract

An understanding of the cellular structural relationships in human brain tissue will allow for improved appreciation of the functional importance. A model of the functional unit brings together the important cell types with improved visualization of the relationships.

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Research Article 

Diagnostic Value of 123-I-MIBG Cardiac Scintigraphy for the Prediction of Conversion from Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder to Dementia with Lewy Bodies, and the Differential Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Makiko Seto, Ruka Nakata, Takayuki Yuasa, Yoko Nakao, Katsuhiro Ichinose, Itsuro Tomita, Hideyo Satoh, Akira Satoh, Makoto Ochi and Mitsuhiro Tsujihata

Abstract

Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is a physiologic analogue of noradrenaline, used to determine the location, integrity, and function of postganglionic noradrenergic neurons.

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Short Commentary 

Machine Learning Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Primary Care

Boaz Levy, Samuel Gable, Elena Tsoy, Nurit Haspel, Brianna Wadler, Rand Wilcox, Courtney Hess, Jacqueline Hogan, Daniel Driscoll and Ardeshir Hashmi

Abstract

Routine cognitive screenings in primary care settings can benefit patient care and preventive medicine in multiple ways; however, their integration to the protocol of physical exams, as a standard of care, may be hampered by systemic considerations related to labor and cost.

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Mini Review Article 

What are the Main Pathogenetic Features of Vascular Cognitive Impairment?

Kurt A Jellinger

Abstract

The term vascular cognitive impairment designates a heterogenous group of disorders ranging from mild cognitive impairment to full-blown dementia-vascular dementia-resulting from cerebrovascular lesions involving various brain areas.

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SHORT COMMENTARY 

From a "Eureka Insight" to a Novel Potential Therapeutic Target to Treat Alzheimer's Disease

Leandro Bueno Bergantin and Afonso Caricati-Neto

Abstract

Classically, the notion of stimulus-secretion coupling to explain neurotransmitters and hormones release has been resulted from ingenious experiments performed by Douglas and Rubin in the 1960s.

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SHORT REVIEW ARTICLE 

Non-Pharmacological Therapies in People with Alzheimer Dementia: Comparing Hand Massage and Conversational Approach in the Italian Context

Carmen Belacchi and Emanuela Capotosto

Abstract

Non-pharmacological therapies have shown to have significant benefits in reducing behavioral psychological symptoms in people with dementia. This is a pilot study to compare the efficacy of two non-pharmacological treatments in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's Dementia (AD) with behavioral psychological symptoms: hand massage and conversational approach.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE 

Rensheng Shouwu Protects against Neuronal Injury by Inhibiting the Apoptosis Induced by Hypoxia and Reoxygenation

Jing Zhu, Li Wan, Yadong Zhu, Xu Yang, Yongming Cai, Wei-Jian Bei and Jiao Guo

Abstract

Rensheng Shouwu Capsule (RSSW) is an approved and patented drug of Traditional Chinese Medicine that has been used for years to treat vascular dementia and neural syndrome related to cerebral-vascular ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism of RSSW remains unclear.

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Review Article 

N-Acetylcysteine: A Natural Antidote for Alzheimer's Disease

Marcos Martínez-Banaclocha

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most devastating age-related dementia, which has no effective treatment. Since the pathological hallmarks of AD brains are Aβ plaques and intra-neuronal tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles, most therapeutic approaches, including immunotherapy, are based on the concept that the accumulation of these proteins produces neuronal damage and death. Alternatively, it has been proposed that reactive species can cause oxidative damage including mitochondrial disruption, contributing to AD initiation and progression.

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BRIEF COMMENTARY 

Parkinson's Disease: Old Concepts and New Challenges

Ramon Cacabelos

Abstract

It is highly unlikely that James Parkinson (1755-1824), who first described the 'paralysis agitans' in his 'Assay on the Shaking Palsy' in 1817 (years later rebadged by Jean-Martin Charcot as Parkinson's disease), could have imagined that the disorder that today bears his name would become the neurodegenerative disorder that, after Alzheimer's disease, has the largest impact on the elderly population.

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