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Review Article 

Incidence of Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Sick Neonates in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Developing Country

Mizanur Rahman, Kanij Fatema and Shahidullah

Abstract

The term "inborn errors of metabolism" (IEM), also referred to as congenital metabolic diseases, is described as the hereditary deficiency of enzymes or alteration in protein structure and function resulting in metabolic derangement that may have pathologic consequences. These disorders result in substrate accumulation causing minor to severe neurological and psychiatric manifestations resulting in lifelong disability or death.

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Review Article 

A Possible Association between Arnold-Chiari Type I Malformation and Epilepsy: Case Series and Review

Uri P Hadelsberg, Hadassah Goldberg, Neelan J Marianayagam and Gustavo Rajz

Abstract

Hans Chiari is the one credited with diagnosing Chiari malformations, dating back to 1890. Chiari malformations consists of four types of hindbrain abnormalities with the majority being a type I or type II CM-which is characterized by displacement of part of the cerebellum and brain stem into the foramen magnum, usually accompanied by myelomeningocele.

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Review Article 

The Role of Interleukins in Epileptic Encephalopathies and Immunomodulation with Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

Diana C Benitez Ramirez and Angelica M Uscategui Daccaret

Abstract

Epileptic encephalopathies make up a group of electroclinical syndromes that are characterized by to have an established presenting age, clinical neurological deterioration secondary to persistent epileptic activity and an irregular response to classical pharmacological treatments. Its etiology is variable, and its precipitating factors are controversial. Since the 90's, the role of inflammation in epilepsy has been described, through to the findings like the presence of inflammatory cells and molecules in cerebrospinal fluid and surgical specimen from affected patients.

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Case Report 

Cerebellar Vermian Dysplasia: The Tale of the Tail

Teresa Chapman and Raj P Kapur

Abstract

A recently described feature of cerebellar vermian dysplasia, the cerebellar "vermian tail", is a morphologically distinctive dysplasia of the nodular lobule of the posterior cerebellum that is appreciable on prenatal imaging. The vermian tail has been described in both human cases of Dandy-Walker malformation, as well as in a mouse model for Dandy-Walker malformation.

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Case Report 

Intradiploic Skull Hematoma in Infants: An Underestimated Diagnosis

Ahmed El Damaty, Samer K Albabaa, Andreas Unterberg and Heidi Baechli

Abstract

Intradiploic hematoma was first reported in 1934 by Chorbski and Davis. It usually occurs after a mild trauma where a small bleeding accumulates within the diploe in between the tabula interna and externa of the skull. It is to be differentiated from calcified or ossified cephalhematoma. The bleeding in cephalhematoma is subperiosteal and tends to resorb spontaneously within 3-6 months in comparison to intradiploic hematoma which needs a surgical intervention.

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Clinical Case 

Stroke in a Child: The Role of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae and Coagulation Factor VIII

Paolo Mariotti, Valerio De Stefano, Maria Chiara Stefanini, Marco Piastra, Francesco Antonio Losavio and Viviana Nociti

Abstract

A 6-year-old child was admitted for an episode of generalized seizures. Shortly after admission in our Emergency Room, he developed somnolence and meningismus (GCS score 3).

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH 

Reliability of the Location of Primary Motor Cortex Using the International 10/20 Electroencephalogram System (10/20 EEG)

Tonya L Rich, Maíra Lixandrão, Alli Hoefer, Alexa Horning, Rachel Johnson, Steven Kim, and Bernadette Gillick

Abstract

In stroke recovery, the activation of the primary motor cortex (M1) is critical for motor learning and has been found to be augmented by non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) recovery. One form of interventional NIBS is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which involves the guided placement of electrodes on the scalp.

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Hypothesis 

A New Pharmacologic Approach for the Potential Reduction of Autism and Multiple Sclerosis

Gary Steinman

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis and autism bear significant neuropathologic similarities such as reduced myelination and elevated anti-myelin basic protein (anti-MBP). However, the ages at which multiple sclerosis and autism are first diagnostically apparent are typically quite different.

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