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Editorial Article 

Osteoporosis: A Major Problem - Worldwide

Ulku Akarirmak

Abstract

Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass and deterioration in bone architecture, resulting in decreased bone strength, increased bone fragility and fracture risk. Fragility fractures are associated with acute and chronic pain, morbidity, deformity, disability and increased mortality for patients. This also means major costs to society.

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Mini Review 

Blood Flow Restriction (BFR) Therapy in Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation

Michael A Fitzgerald and Wade Rankin

Abstract

Blood flow restriction (BFR) therapy has emerged as a novel approach to improve outcomes in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. It was previously thought that heavy-load therapy at 60-70% of one's maximum effort (1RM) was the primary way to increase strength and improve function. However, current evidence suggests that venous occlusion proximal to a muscle body may confer the same results with low-load therapy at 20-30% of 1RM.

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Review Article 

Pre-Season Training Affects Negatively the Immunological Parameters and Creatine Kinase but not Power Performance in Young Soccer Players

Eduardo Henrique Frazilli Pascoal, Juliano Henrique Borges, Clovis Alberto Franciscon, Luiz Andrade, Leandro Mateus Pagoto Spigolon and Joao Paulo Borin

Abstract

The training content, volume and intensity are determinants on the training load understand, since it can lead to a chronic fatigue status that affect biochemical, immunological and performance variables. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the creatine kinase (CK) activity, white blood cells subpopulations and lower-limb power performance of U19 soccer players in accordance of the training content during pre-season period.

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Research Article 

Cardiac Remodeling Profile in High-Level Women Soccer Players: A Preliminary Study

Nadhir Hammami, Khaled Sayahi, Amal Salhi, Amal Ben Youssef, Latifa Yahyaoui, Wajih Ben Saïd and Anissa Bouassida

Abstract

The cardiac remodeling is variable according to the type of sport, which makes difficult the appreciation of what amounts to cardiac adaptation compared to what amounts to the pathological; this is the case for the soccer player who is subjected to variable isometric and isotonic constraints.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE 

Traumatic Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Rupture from Muaythai Kickboxing: A Case Report

Stephen J Strotmeyer and Keelan Enseki

Abstract

A 30-year-old female Muaythai boxer presented with a 48 hour history of instability and acute pain in her right knee after hearing a "pop". There was no prior history of trauma. On the previous day, she had been training in Muaythai, specifically, clinching and knee-sparring, a common activity as part of fighter training.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE 

A Pilot Study: The Acute Effects of a Novel Kinetic Chain Weight-Supported Resistance Training Technique

Thomas G Palmer and Michael Del Re

Abstract

Kinetic Chain Resistance Training (KCRT) has been used to promote gains in muscular strength. The Finisher® is a gravity-modified resistance devises which offers weight-supported kinetic chain stimuli.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE 

Effect of High-Intensity and Concurrent Training in Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Women Institutional Revision

Jorge Cervantes Sanabria and Jessenia Hernández Elizondo

Abstract

This study was designed to determine the changes in body composition, Body Weight (BW), Fat Mass (FM), Body Fat Percentage (BF%) and, Skeletal Muscle Mass (SMM) of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and Concurrent Training (CT), comparing them to a Control Group (CG) for four months of intervention in overweight and obese women.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE 

Validation of a Physical Activity Monitor as an Estimation of Energy Expenditure During a Circuit-Style Workout with Females who are Overweight or Obese

Lauren Killen, Jenn Caputo, John Coons, Vaughn Barry and Dana Fuller

Abstract

Overweight and obese females, N = 40, 20-59 years of age, completed a pre-recorded circuit-style exercise session DVD consisting of eight exercises. An SWA and portable metabolic analyzer were worn by each participant throughout the exercise session to measure energy expenditure.

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REVIEW AND META ANALYSIS 

The Long-Term Effects of Sport-related Concussions on Cognition in Interscholastic and Collegiate Athletes: A Meta-analysis of Cross-Sectional Studies

Lauren C Scott, Frazer Atkinson and Neha P Gothe

Abstract

Over the past twenty years researchers have conducted cross sectional and longitudinal studies to examine how concussions could impact cognitive functions. Previous meta-analysis exploring the effect of a sport-related concussion on cognition lacked matched control groups and only assessed short-term effects ranging 7-14 days.

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Research Article 

Perceived Exertion is Lower in Running than Walking at the Same Heart Rate and Lactate Level

Makoto Sakamoto, Magdalena Jackowska and Hiroaki Tanaka

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine perceived effort at various intensities in human walking and running. Fifteen male subjects participated in this study.

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Research Article 

Ecological Momentary Intervention via Text Message Reminders for Collegiate Female Athletes at Risk for the Female Athlete Triad

Jennifer Day, Heidi Wengreen, Vladimir Kulyukin and Vikas Reddy

Abstract

Female athletes are at an increased risk of developing the female athlete triad, which is associated with negative consequences to the performance and health of the athlete.

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Research Article 

The Decision to Play Hurt: Contextual Moderators of Non-Stakeholders' Perceptions of Athletes

Britton W Brewer, Albert J Petitpas and Judy L Van Raalte

Abstract

This study examined how an athlete's decision to play (or not to play) hurt and the situational context in which the decision was made affected how the athlete was perceived by individuals without a vested interest in the athlete playing with an injury.

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Review Article 

Physiological Adaptations of Apnea-Conditioned Athletes and their Implications for Synchronized Swimmers' Performance

Sylvia Konstantinidou and Chrysoula Chairopoulou

Abstract

Apneas form an essential tool for training in aquatics including swimming, fin swimming and synchronized swimming (SS). We examine the direct responses and the long-term physiological adaptations to acute apnea and apnea training respectively in order to determine their potential impact on SS athletes' performance.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE 

Fractionized Walking at Self-Selected Paces in Women

Henry Williford, Melvenia Redding, Michael Esco, Erin Reilly, Cornell Foo, George Schaefer, Deanne Allegro and Brett Nickerson

Abstract

Walking is the most popular form of physical activity and often used to meet physical activity guidelines. Six in 10 adults report that they walk at least 10 minutes per week. Walking is a low cost, low injury mode of physical activity.

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Review Article 

Exercise Associated Muscle Cramps - A Current Perspective

Jun Qiu and Jie Kang

Abstract

Exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) are a common condition experienced by recreational and competitive athletes and often require medical attention during or immediately after sports events. Despite the high prevalence of this condition, the etiology of EAMC remains poorly understood, and there is a lack of high levels of evidence to guide the management of this condition.

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Editorial 

Change of Direction Tasks: Does the Eccentric Muscle Contraction Really Matter?

Helmi Chaabene

Abstract

The capacity to quickly change direction while sprinting, known also under the term cutting or else change of direction ability (COD), is paramount for many sporting disciplines and particularly for team sports (e.g., soccer, handball, basketball, etc…). In fact, COD is one of the main agility components that defines movement where no immediate response to a stimulus is needed.

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